A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic. Africa and parts of South America, Central America and Australia. Applied climatology book pdf can help by adding to it.
The distribution of aridity observed at any one point in time is largely the result of the general circulation of the atmosphere. The latter does change significantly over time through climate change. 40 years could change the region from semi-arid to arid, resulting in a significant reduction in agricultural land. In addition, changes in land use can result in greater demands on soil water and induce a higher degree of aridity.
Climatology’, Chapter 2 in Handbook of Applied Meteorology, Edited by David D. Houghton, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0-471-08404-2.
Arid Climates’, article in The Encyclopedia of Climatology, p. Fairbridge, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, ISBN 0-87933-009-0. Aridity Indexes’, article in The Encyclopedia of Climatology, p. Fairbridge, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, ISBN 0-87933-009-0.
Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the Earth’s atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important.
Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Experimental instruments used in atmospheric sciences include satellites, rocketsondes, radiosondes, weather balloons, and lasers. Early pioneers in the field include Léon Teisserenc de Bort and Richard Assmann.
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth’s atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. It is a multidisciplinary field of research and draws on environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology and volcanology and other disciplines. Research is increasingly connected with other areas of study such as climatology. The composition and chemistry of the atmosphere is of importance for several reasons, but primarily because of the interactions between the atmosphere and living organisms.
The composition of the Earth’s atmosphere has been changed by human activity and some of these changes are harmful to human health, crops and ecosystems. Examples of problems which have been addressed by atmospheric chemistry include acid rain, photochemical smog and global warming.
Atmospheric chemistry seeks to understand the causes of these problems, and by obtaining a theoretical understanding of them, allow possible solutions to be tested and the effects of changes in government policy evaluated. Atmospheric dynamics involves the study of observations and theory dealing with all motion systems of meteorological importance. Common topics studied include diverse phenomena such as thunderstorms, tornadoes, gravity waves, tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones, jet streams, and global-scale circulations.
The goal of dynamical studies is to explain the observed circulations on the basis of fundamental principles from physics. Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere.