Not to be confused with Hydrologic engineering. Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage. One feature of these systems is the extensive use of gravity applied hydraulic engineering book pdf the motive force to cause the movement of the fluids. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of bridges, dams, channels, canals, and levees, and to both sanitary and environmental engineering.
Hydraulic engineering is the application of the principles of fluid mechanics to problems dealing with the collection, storage, control, transport, regulation, measurement, and use of water. Before beginning a hydraulic engineering project, one must figure out how much water is involved. The hydraulic engineer is concerned with the transport of sediment by the river, the interaction of the water with its alluvial boundary, and the occurrence of scour and deposition. The hydraulic engineer actually develops conceptual designs for the various features which interact with water such as spillways and outlet works for dams, culverts for highways, canals and related structures for irrigation projects, and cooling-water facilities for thermal power plants.
A few examples of the fundamental principles of hydraulic engineering include fluid mechanics, fluid flow, behavior of real fluids, hydrology, pipelines, open channel hydraulics, mechanics of sediment transport, physical modeling, hydraulic machines, and drainage hydraulics. Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering defines hydrostatics as the study of fluids at rest.
In a fluid at rest, there exists a force, known as pressure, that acts upon the fluid’s surroundings. 2, is not constant throughout the body of fluid.
Pressure, p, in a given body of fluid, increases with an increase in depth. Four basic devices for pressure measurement are a piezometer, manometer, differential manometer, Bourdon gauge, as well as an inclined manometer. On undisturbed submerged bodies, pressure acts along all surfaces of a body in a liquid, causing equal perpendicular forces in the body to act against the pressure of the liquid. This reaction is known as equilibrium.
More advanced applications of pressure are that on plane surfaces, curved surfaces, dams, and quadrant gates, just to name a few. Ideal fluid is incompressible and has no viscosity. Ideal fluid is only an imaginary fluid as all fluids that exist have some viscosity.
A viscous fluid will deform continuously under a shear force, whereas an ideal fluid doesn’t deform. The various effects of disturbance on a viscous flow are stable, transition and unstable.