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The normal physical effects of the execution of a program, e. An auction method carried out over the internet, characterised by the auction rules.
An enantiopure drug is a pharmaceutical that is available in one specific enantiomeric form. One enantiomer of a drug may have a desired beneficial effect while the other may cause serious and undesired side effects, or sometimes even beneficial but entirely different effects.
Advances in industrial chemical processes have made it economical for pharmaceutical manufacturers to take drugs that were originally marketed as a racemic mixture and market the individual enantiomers, either by specifically manufacturing the desired enantiomer or by resolving a racemic mixture. On a case-by-case basis, the U. Also case-by-case, the United States Patent Office has granted patents for single enantiomers of certain drugs.
Selectivity is a very important part of organic synthesis. In scientific papers regarding synthesis, selectivity is often listed in data tables alongside percent yield and other reaction conditions.
While selectivity is deemed important in scientific literature, it has been challenging to effectively implement selectivity in drug development and production. A major issue with selectivity in pharmaceuticals is that a large percentage of drug syntheses by nature are not selective reactions, racemic mixtures are formed as the products. Separating racemic mixtures into their respective enantiomers takes extra time, money, and energy. One way to separate enantiomers is to chemically convert them into species that can be separated: diastereomers.