Causes of the disorder are predominantly idiopathic. A small number of patients develop the disorder as a result of another disorder or disease. Most patients first experience symptoms midlife. The most common treatment for spasmodic torticollis is the use of botulinum toxin type A.
Initial symptoms of spasmodic torticollis are usually mild. Some feel an invisible tremor of their head for a few months at onset. Then the head may turn, pull or tilt in jerky movements, or sustain a prolonged position involuntarily.
Over time, the involuntary spasm of the neck muscles will increase in frequency and strength until it reaches a plateau. Symptoms can also worsen while the patient is walking or during periods of increased stress. Other symptoms include muscle hypertrophy, neck pain, dysarthria and tremor. Coronal sections of human brain labeling the basal ganglia.