Kural, is a classic Tamil text consisting of 1330 couplets or kurals, dealing with the everyday virtues of download thirukkural in tamil with meaning pdf individual. Considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality, chiefly secular ethics, it is known for its universality and non-denominational nature. It was authored by Valluvar, also known in full as Thiruvalluvar. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 7th century CE.
The traditional accounts describe it as the last work of the third Sangam, but linguistic analysis suggests a later date of 450-500 CE. Praised as “the Universal Veda,” the Tirukkural emphasizes on the ethical edifices of non-violence, vegetarianism, casteless human brotherhood, absence of desires, path of righteousness and truth, and so forth, besides covering a wide range of subjects such as moral codes of rulers, friendship, agriculture, knowledge and wisdom, sobriety, love, and domestic life.
Considered as chef d’oeuvre of both Indian and world literature, the Tirukkural is one of the most important works in the Tamil language. Translated into at least 40 languages as of 2014, Tirukkural is one of the most widely translated non-religious works in the world. Because the life, culture and ethics of the Tamils are considered to be solely defined in terms of the values set by the Tirukkural, the government and the people of Tamil Nadu alike uphold the text with utmost reverence.
Along with the Gita, the Tirukkural is a prime candidate nominated to be the national book of India, for which a declaration was passed at the Tamil Nadu Assembly in 2006. Each kural or couplet contains exactly seven words, known as cirs, with four cirs on the first line and three on the second. A cir is a single or a combination of more than one Tamil word. For example, Thirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words thiru and kuṛaḷ.
The overall organisation of the Kural text is based on seven ideals prescribed for a commoner besides observations of love. The couplets are generally numbered in a linear fashion across the three books, covering all the 1,330 couplets.