English result upper intermediate pdf download free

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Humeral” should not be confused with “humoral”. English result upper intermediate pdf download free connects the scapula and the two bones of the lower arm, the radius and ulna, and consists of three sections.


The body is cylindrical in its upper portion, and more prismatic below. As well as its true anatomical neck, the constriction below the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus is referred to as its surgical neck due to its tendency to fracture, thus often becoming the focus of surgeons. Gothic ams shoulder and Greek ōmos. At the shoulder, the head of the humerus articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula.

More distally, at the elbow, the capitulum of the humerus articulates with the head of the radius, and the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna. The left shoulder and acromioclavicular joints, and the proper ligaments of the scapula. The axillary nerve is located at the proximal end, against the shoulder girdle. Dislocation of the humerus’s glenohumeral joint, has the potential to injure the axillary nerve or the axillary artery.

Signs and symptoms of this dislocation include a loss of the normal shoulder contour and a palpable depression under the acromion. The radial nerve follows the humerus closely. At the midshaft of the humerus, the radial nerve travels from the posterior to the anterior aspect of the bone in the spiral groove. A fracture of the humerus in this region can result in radial nerve injury.

The ulnar nerve lies at the distal end of the humerus near the elbow. When struck, it can cause a distinct tingling sensation, and sometimes a significant amount of pain. It lies posterior to the medial epicondyle, and is easily damaged in elbow injuries. Horizontal section at the middle of upper arm.