Access to water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia is amongst the lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa and the entire world. While access has increased substantially with funding from foreign aid, much still remains to be done to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving the share of people without access to water and sanitation by 2015, to improve sustainability and to improve service quality. Paris Declaration on Aid Ethiopian gtp 2 pdf. Implementation of the policy apparently is uneven.
2015, which aims at increasing drinking water coverage, based on the government’s definition, from 68. While donors have committed substantial funds to the sector, effectively spending the money and to ensure the proper operation and maintenance of infrastructure built with these funds remain a challenge.
The major river in Ethiopia is the Blue Nile. However, most drinking water in Ethiopia comes from ground water, not rivers.
Ethiopia has 12 river basins with an annual runoff volume of 122 billion m3 of water and an estimated 2. 5 billion m3 of ground water potential. This corresponds to an average of 1,575 m3 of physically available water per person per year, a relatively large volume.
However, due to large spatial and temporal variations in rainfall and lack of storage, water is often not available where and when needed. The capital Addis Ababa’s main source of drinking water is the Gafsara dam built during the Italian occupation and rehabilitated in 2009. Wells and another dam complement the supply.