Introduction to chemical processes pdf


The leather manufacturing process is divided into three sub-processes: preparatory stages, tanning and crusting. All true leathers will undergo these sub-introduction to chemical processes pdf. A further sub-process, surface coating may be added into the sequence.

The list of operations that leathers undergo vary with the type of leather. The leather making process is in general restricted to batch processing, but if the surface coating sub-process is added then some continuous processing can be included. During the preparatory stages many of the unwanted raw skin components are removed.

Many options for pretreatment of the skin exist. Not all of the options may be performed. H value to the acidic region.

Must be done in the presence of salts. Pickling is normally done to help with the penetration of certain tanning agents, e. Tanning is the process that converts the protein of the raw hide or skin into a stable material which will not putrefy and is suitable for a wide variety of end applications.