Knoevenagel reaction mechanism pdf


It is a knoevenagel reaction mechanism pdf of the aldol condensation. In this reaction the carbonyl group is an aldehyde or a ketone.

The catalyst is usually a weakly basic amine. Z for instance diethyl malonate, Meldrum’s acid, ethyl acetoacetate or malonic acid, or cyanoacetic acid. Z is an electron withdrawing functional group.