Italian dairy product made from Italian buffalo’s milk by the pasta filata method. Mozzarella received a Traditional Specialities Guaranteed certification from the European Union in 1998. This protection scheme requires that mozzarella sold in the European Union mozzarella cheese making process pdf produced according to a traditional recipe.
The TSG certification does not specify the source of the milk, so any type of milk can be used. In Italy, mozzarella made with the milk of the Italian water buffalo is an important variety.
The Italian buffalo mozzarella sold as Mozzarella di Bufala Campana is protected under the EU’s Protected Designation of Origin scheme and may only be produced in select locations in the regions of Campania, Lazio, Apulia and Molise. Fresh mozzarella is generally white, but may vary seasonally to slightly yellow depending on the animal’s diet.
Due to its high moisture content, it is traditionally served the day after it is made, but can be kept in brine for up to a week or longer when sold in vacuum-sealed packages. Low-moisture mozzarella can be kept refrigerated for up to a month, though some shredded low-moisture mozzarella is sold with a shelf life of up to six months. Mozzarella of several kinds is also used for most types of pizza and several pasta dishes, or served with sliced tomatoes and basil in Caprese salad. The term is first mentioned in 1570, cited in a cookbook by Bartolomeo Scappi, reading “milk cream, fresh butter, ricotta cheese, fresh mozzarella and milk”.
An earlier reference is also often cited as describing mozzarella. Historian Monsignor Alicandri, in “Chiesa Metropolitana di Capua,” states that in the 12th century the Monastery of Saint Lorenzo, in Capua, offered pilgrims a piece of bread with mozza or provatura. These are locations rather than products and mozza is taken by some to be mozzarella.
In this last form it is often used to prepare dishes cooked in the oven, such as lasagna and pizza. Ovolini refers to smaller-sized bocconcini, and sometimes to cherry bocconcini. Several variants have been specifically formulated and prepared for use on pizza, such as low-moisture Mozzarella cheese.
Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella, widely used in the food-service industry, has a low galactose content, per some consumers’ preference for cheese on pizza to have low or moderate browning. Some pizza cheeses derived from skim mozzarella variants were designed not to require aging or the use of starter. Others can be made through the direct acidification of milk.