This is the latest types of carbohydrates pdf revision, reviewed on 30 November 2017. Lactose is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage. It has a formula of C12H22O11.
This formula holds true for monosaccharides. DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of ‘saccharide’, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.
While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose. For example, grape sugar is the monosaccharide glucose, cane sugar is the disaccharide sucrose, and milk sugar is the disaccharide lactose.
Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA.
Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development. Carbohydrates are found in a wide variety of foods. Starch and sugar are the important carbohydrates in our diet.