What is petroleum pdf


Historically, this type of gas was released as a waste product from the petroleum extraction industry. It may be a stranded gas reserve due to the what is petroleum pdf location of the oil field, either at sea or on land, this gas is simply burnt off in gas flares.

When this occurs the gas is referred to as flare gas. The gas can be utilized in a number of ways after processing: sold and included in the natural gas distribution networks, used for on-site electricity generation with engines or turbines, reinjected for enhanced oil recovery, converted from gas to liquids producing synthetic fuels or used as feedstock for the petrochemical industry.

Russia is the world leader in flaring APG and flares 30 percent of total global APG flares. APG flaring is controversial as it is a pollutant, a source of global warming and a waste of a valuable fuel source. APG is flared in many countries where there are significant power shortages.

In the United Kingdom, gas may not be flared without written consent from the UK government to prevent unnecessary waste and protect the environment. The World Bank estimates that over 150 billion cubic metres of natural gas are flared or vented annually. Flared natural gas is worth approximately 30.

6 billion dollars and equivalent to 25 percent of the United States’ yearly gas consumption or 30 percent of the European Union’s annual gas consumption. The Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Flare gas – Oilfield Glossary”. Associated Petroleum Gas in Gas Engines”. Roland 2010 cites Knizhnikov, A.

Russian Associated Gas Utilization: Problems and Prospects’, Annual Project Report Environment and Energy: International Context Issue 1. Flaring Up – Companies Pay High Costs to be Green”.

Nigeria’s gas profits go up in smoke”. World Bank, GGFR Partners Unlock Value of Wasted Gas”. This page was last edited on 10 November 2017, at 19:53.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Istilah “petroleum” pertama kali digunakan dalam karya bertajuk De Natura Fossilium, diterbitkan pada tahun 1546 oleh seorang pakar mineralogi berbangsa Jerman bernama Georg Bauer, juga dikenali sebagai Georgius Agricola.

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